Network Protection & Automation Guide (NPAG)

In order to provide the modern practicing substation engineer with reference material, AREVA's Network Protection & Automation Guide provides a substantially revised and expanded edition of PRAG incorporating new chapters on all levels of network automation.


The first part of the book deals with the fundamentals, basic technology, fault calculations and the models of power system plant, including the transient response and saturation problems that affect instrument transformers.

The typical data provided on power system plant has been updated and significantly expanded following research that showed its popularity.

The book then provides detailed analysis on the application of protection systems. This includes a new chapter on the protection of a.c. electrified railways. Existing chapters on distance, busbar and generator protection have been completely revised to take account of new developments, including improvements due to numerical protection techniques and the application problems of embedded generation. The chapter on relay testing and commissioning has been completely updated to reflect modern techniques. Finally, new chapters covering the fields of power system measurements, power quality, and substation and distribution automation are found, to reflect the importance of these fields for the modern power system engineer.

The intention is to make NPAG the standard reference work in its' subject area - while still helping the student and young engineer new to the field.

To obtain the NPAG book, by download or CD-ROM, please use the contact form in the link below.


The following is a short description of the content of the individual chapters of NPAG:

Chapter 16 Transformer and Transformer-Feeder Protection

The considerations for a transformer protection package vary with the application and importance of the transformer. To reduce the effects of thermal stress and electrodynamic forces, it is advisable to ensure that the protection package used minimises the time for disconnection in the event of a fault occurring within the transformer. Small distribution transformers can be protected satisfactorily, from both technical and economic considerations, by the use of fuses or overcurrent relays. This results in time-delayed protection due to downstream co-ordination requirements. However, time-delayed fault clearance is unacceptable on larger power transformers used in distribution, transmission and generator applications,
due to system operation/stability and cost of repair/length of outage considerations.

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