Summer 2007 Issue
I remember many years ago, when I was in collage and later making my first steps as a protection engineer in a small country behind the "Iron Curtain",  and was trying to keep up with what is going on around the world - my only window was the IEEE Transactions. So I will go to the library, find the latest issue and look for papers on protection or power system control. At the time the papers ... More
It is very important to understand that this magazine will only be as good as we, the community, make it. Many years of experience have taught us that most successes are the result of a team effort - a team of people like you. Ours is a relatively small, but very special community of unique individuals that care about what we do and who we are. We all have something to say that will help us grow ... More


Industry News

Capacitor Bank Protection and Control System

GE Multilin's C70 Capacitor Bank Protection and Control System is based on the well-established and proven UR platform. Today, shunt capacitor banks play an increasingly vital role in blackout prevention and reactive support.  Protecting this equipment has historically involved complex, custom protection schemes consisting of multiple products that rarely addressed the inherent system and ban... More

First IEC 61850 Compliant Test Device

OMICRON electronics introduced the first device that allows functional testing of protection relays or other IEDs that are compliant with the IEC 61850 communications protocol. The CMC 256 NET-1 Option provides a new way of communication between a computer and the test set. It replaces the parallel interface and supports the control of multiple test sets with only one computer. GOOSE messages can ... More

Full IEC 61850 compliance in substation automation

The Station Automation Series COM 600 provides superior interoperability  and data exchange between industrial or utility IEDs and local or higher level systems.The series consists of three products: COM 605 with a local or remote HMI, the COM 610 communications gateway for remote connectivity and the COM 615 substation computer combining local HMI and communication gateway functions in the s... More

MiCOM Px40 Series Multifunction Protection IEDs

AREVA T&D Automation announced further significant steps in the completion of its MiCOM Px40 series.  The latest models incorporate an intuitive front panel HMI, for simple control of circuit breakers and switching devices, and for in/out selection of theuser's own test and control features.  LEDs are tri-state colored for annunciation, and high speed/high break relay contacts are rated ... More

New paralleling device for applications requiring high reliability

The new Siemens SIPROTEC 7VE63 paralleling device is a multifunction relay used for paralleling large generators or power systems, which require high reliability. Its unique 2-channel measurement method and hardware design guarantees secure paralleling. Two independent measurement methods, algorithms and trip circuits must all concur to allow secure operation. The unit has superior control and mon... More

New teleprotection terminal

The use of the most advanced technology together with DIMAT's wide experience in digital and analog teleprotection terminals have resulted in the new universal teleprotection terminal type TPU-1.The modular design of TPU-1 terminals allows the use of different types of modules according to the teleprotection needs of each application. This allows it to manage one or two digital and/or analog chann... More

Novel Relay Protection Systems for Electric Arc Furnace Power Transformers

Cooper Power Systems developed advanced relay protection systems for electric arc furnace (EAF) power transformers that incorporate Rogowski coil (RC) current sensors and multifunction relays. In the past, differential protection schemes were not applied on EAF transformers due to the difficulty in providing conventional iron-core current transformers (CTs) of sufficient rating for the conductors ... More

PG&E/EPRI Protection and Control Workshop

The electric power industry is going through a period of increased performance requirements during system events and wide area disturbances, combined with the availability of new communications and advanced measuring and protections functions. The successful implementation of these new technologies is only possible when there is a good understanding of the problems that the industry faces, the exp... More

Phasor measurements now available in distribution relays

Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL) announced that the SEL-351 family of distribution relays now includes built in synchrophasor measurement technology. The synchrophasor capability in SEL-351 relays is also compatible with SEL synchroWAVe (tm) Software and the SEL-3306 Synchrophasor Processor. SEL-5077 synchroWAVe Server Software and the SEL-3306 time-correlate synchrophasor data from... More

Toshiba distance protection with IEC 61850

The Toshiba GRZ100 distance protection meets the functional and performance requirements of the IEC 61850 standard implemented in a software environment and hardware architecture that will support future technological progress.The relay certified by KEMA in July 2006 demonstrated the high performance achieved for GOOSE messaging and is the first of several Toshiba IEC 61850 products with transform... More

Technology News

Large-Scale Molecular Memory

UCLA and Caltech chemists report the creation of large-scale molecular memory, an important step toward building molecular computers. The electric power industry has a keen interest in all improvements to the technology of computation. Developments augmenting the speed and fault tolerance of integrated circuits hastens the reality of the vision many of us have, of a power system capable of asses... More

New World Record Achieved in Solar Cell Technology

New Solar Cell Breaks the "40 Percent Efficient" Sunlight-to-Electricity Barrier Based on DOE Press Release, pictures courtesy Spectrolab (a Boeing company) The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently announced that with DOE funding, a concentrator solar cell produced by Boeing-Spectrolab has recently achieved a world-record conversion efficiency of 40.7 percent, establishing a new milestone in ... More

The super computers are here

Author: Jeff Bronfeld What exactly makes a computer super? In our industry we are used to measuring things in Kva and Mva, horse power, voltage, PSI, degrees Celsius. But our highly integrated power systems are depending more and more on computational "power", which is measured in flops. (Hey, don't laugh, we measure things in darafs, a unit of electrical elastance, the reciprocal of farads.) F... More
Cover Story


IEC 61850 is an approved international standard for communications in substations that is creating opportunities for a revolution in the world of electric power systems protection and control. It represents the next step in integration of multifunctional IEDs based on the development and implementation of advanced distributed protection and control functions. But for this revolution to succeed, we... More
IEC 61850 Update
I guess, many of you already heard about IEC 61850 and you may as well know a lot about the technical content and scope of IEC 61850. As a Convenor of the IEC working group that is responsible for the development and maintenance of IEC 61850, I will regularly address in this column topics related to IEC 61850 that are of interest for our readers. Topics that may be covered will include a large ra... More
Lessons Learned

Large motor impact

The two main goals of a transmission line protection scheme are to successfully clear faults and to successfully reclose the circuit once the fault has been cleared.  The chances of success are greatly reduced in the presence of significant tapped motor load if the presence of this motor load isn't properly considered and proper scheme adjustments made. On August 6, 2005 TVA experienced th... More
Blackout Watch

Major Disturbance in UCTE system

The Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE) grid suffered a severe disturbance on 4 November 2006. Immediate action by TSOs prevented a Europe-wide blackout. This article summarizes the findings ( from the subsequent UCTE investigation. E.ON Netz was requested to disconnect the double circuit 380kV line Diele-Conneforde in Northern Germany on 5 Novembe... More

Tokyo Blackout August 14, 2006

The second largest blackout in the history of TEPCO (The Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc.) hit central Tokyo area at about 7:38 a.m. on August 14, 2006. It was caused by a floating crane on a barge going upstream on a river on the eastern edge of the city. The workers on the boat did not realize that the 33 meter crane was raised too high, so it hit TEPCO's 275 kV double circuit transmission ... More
Protection - Time

Substation Time Synchronization

For nearly a hundred years, the electric power industry operated without an external time reference, except perhaps to ensure that the average frequency was correct so as to keep clocks with synchronous motors running on-time. The past decade has seen an explosion in the use of accurate time in the substation and generation plant, now that accurate timing signals are inexpensively available everyw... More
Protection - SONET

Communication Channel Requirements for Pilot Protection

Pilot relaying has been applied for transmission line protection since the 30's. The well known communication channels (pilot wire or Power Line Carrier) are increasingly being replaced by digital channels.  Dark fiber (dedicated fiber optic cable), multiplexed fiber optic systems (T1 and SONET) and 56 kbps phone lines are now made available for pilot protection purposes. The new channels pro... More

IEC 61850 - The Impact on Testing

The application of IEC 61850 introduces several new issues for testing substation devices. The most obvious change is the different way of "wiring" to obtain the signals. But there are other issues that change the way of testing, such as configuration. Signals and data traffic of different nature have to be regarded, such as real time peer-to-peer messaging (GOOSE), digitized data from CTs an... More

The Guru


It's a marvelous 50th ANNIVERSARY! I appreciate this so much and enjoyed the 75th so much that I can hardly wait the next five years when we most surely will celebrate the 25th anniversary unless we can get our historian to straighten out his books.Last year we celebrated the 150th  anniversary of Thomas Edison. He's the fellow who gave us the telephone answer of,"Hello". Alexander Graham Bel... More

Walt Elmore

Find out why! To accept something the way it's always been done is not acceptable. There is too much of that - accepting things the way they are. PAC WORLD: Walt, we know a lot about you professionally. But we don't know much about your life. WE: All right. I was born in Bartlett, Tennessee, which is just outside of Memphis. In my earliest childhood I had a lot of kids to play with. There were ho... More

Introduction to the History of Selective Protection

The intention of this series of articles is to begin to piece together the true account and timeline associated with PAC developments and to recognize the achievements of the pioneers of early and modern PAC technology. The technological developments and accomplishments of protection equipment are rarely a cause célèbre within the power industry. It is easy to understand why this is so when one c... More
I Think

Life "Outside the BOX"

First, let's look at a definition for the "box".This "box" is bounded by the constraints we are under. A place where things are always done the same way: by the same rules, for the same reasons, where life is calm and peaceful, where no one makes waves, or by my way of thinking BORING.To me living in a constrained box tends to take "extreme" thinking out of the whole equation. We become something ... More
Industry Reports

International Council on Large Electric Systems

CIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems) is one of the leading worldwide organizations on electric power systems. CIGRE is a permanent non-governmental and non profit-making international association based in France. It is concerned with technical, economic, environmental, organizational and regulatory aspects of power systems. It was founded in 1921 and aims to: Facilitate and d... More

The IEEE Power System Relaying Committee

This committee is one of 18 technical committees of the IEEE Power Engineering Society (PES).  The scope of the committee simply stated is to provide technical guidance and leadership in the technology of electric power system protection. More specifically, the scope reads as follows: "Treatment  of all matters in which the dominant factors are the application, design, construction and ... More
Conference Reports

2006 CIGRE Session Special Report "Protection Systems"

Albertino J. Cerejo Meneses received his Licenciatura degree in Electrical Engineering from the Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal, in 1977.He is with Rede Eléctrica Nacional, S.A. (the Portuguese TSO) since 1980; he was Head of the Operations Department (South) from 1994 to 1998 and Head of the Telecommunications Department from 1998 to 2001. He is Head of the Systems... More

2006 CIGRE Session Special Report "The Impact of IEC"

For the preferential subject "The Impact of IEC 61850 on Protection and Automation" 12 papers were received and they fell into four main categories: Configurations and architecturesReliability and testingImplementation experiencesMigration strategies There were 61 contributions presented at the session in response to the 12 questions posed by the Special Reporter.This article provides a short su... More

CIDEL 2006, Buenos Aires, Argentina

CIDEL is the most important Electricity Distribution event in Latin America, both for the excellence of the papers and the quality of the audience. From 27 to 29 November 2006, Buenos Aires hosted the International Electricity Distribution Congress CIDEL Argentina 2006, the third congress after those held in 1996 and 2002.  The congress was attended by 440 professionals from 27 countries. Ov... More

CIGRE 2006

The Biennial Session of CIGRE is held in Paris, France every even numbered year and is the most important CIGRE event. It brings together more than 2500 delegates from all the parts of the world.  Nearly 400 papers, covering all the fields of CIGRE, are discussed are discussed at the conference. The conference, as usual, was held in Palais de Congres - a 41 thousand square meters building lo... More

Southern African Power System Protection Conference

The challenge to the protection fraternity today is that the time is now to develop a new roadmap for that systems-thinking approach in power system development.  Specifically, protection systems will be key to moving vast quantities of power reliably from environmentally clean sources to load centers. Eskom, the electricity utility in South Africa, hosts the biennial Southern African Power ... More

Western Protective Relay Conference

Even that the conference is held in a relatively small city, it is the largest specialized conference in North America dedicated to the field of electric power systems protection. It is an annual event that always takes place at the same location and the same time of the year. The 2006 Western Protective Relaying Conference was held from 17 through 19 October at the International Agricultural Tra... More
Book Review

Practical Power System Protection

Electric power systems protection is one of the more complex fields that requires deep understanding of the abnormal conditions that may occur in the system, their effect on the stability of the system and sensitive loads, as well as the advancements in protection technology, communications and automation. Books on power systems protection are usually going deeply into the theory of fault analysis... More
Final Thoughts

This is Just a Start

You have the first issue of PACworld in your hands. We hope that you like it. As we said before, the magazine is to be a place for discussion and exchange of ideas, so you need to let us know whether you think there is anything we can do better.Let's go back to Walt Elmore's words: "Find out why! To accept something the way it's always been done is not acceptable."We fully agree with him. And thes... More
Power. Flexible. Easergy.
Let?s start with organization in protection testing