Autumn 2008 Issue
In the Technology News section of this issue of the magazine we talk about what is described as the biggest machine in the world – the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which in reality is just a small device compared to a Large Electric Power System (LEPS). And the impact of a failure of the electric power system is much bigger than a failure of the LHC – unless the concern of some ph... More


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Industry News

Automatic Fault Location and Data Collection Software

Siemens Energy introduces SAFIR - the Siemens Network Fault and Power Quality Analysis System. This tool can automatically collect transient and power quality data in the Comtrade format from the devices at the substation - protective relays from different manufacturers and digital fault recorders - automatically cluster all data related to a particular event, generate an easy to understa... More

Differential Protection for Phase Shifting Transformer

Toshiba has supplied a control and protection system for a Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) for TransGrid's 132kV network in Australia. The system, which is due to commence operation in December 2008 at the Armidale 330kV substation, includes Toshiba's GRT100 Transformer Differential Protection applied for protection of the PST and accommodating phase shifts of up to 30 degrees.  GRT100 suppo... More

Feeder Management IED

AREVA's MiCOM P145 feeder management relays provide an integrated solution for the complete protection, control and monitoring of overhead lines and underground cables, covering distribution and transmission voltage levels applications. Integrated communication protocols include IEC61850 and allow easy interfacing to substation control or SCADA systems. A wide range of advanced protection fu... More

IEEE PES Name Change

After a final vote from the membership of the IEEE Power Engineering Society (PES), it has officially changed its name to the IEEE Power & Energy Society (PES), effective 22 April, 2008. IEEE PES President Wanda Reder made the announcement at the 2008 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference in Chicago, Illinois. The change is driven by the efforts of the Society to grow its world... More

IP Access Multiplexer

RFL Electronics Inc. has introduced the eXmux 3500 - a substation hardened IP Access Multiplexer engineered to seamlessly transport Voice, Data, and Ethernet communications over Ethernet networks, providing the flexibility of backward compatibility with legacy devices and forward compatibility with IP devices on the same communications platform. The eXmux 3500 Access Multiplexers combines ... More

New Busbar Protection System

ABB introduces a new high-speed substation busbar protection system for utility and industrial power systems using reverse interlocking.  The busbar protection application is based on the company's REF615 feeder protection relay with native support for the IEC 61850 standard and its GOOSE services. This smart grid-enabled relay offers a platform to advance the performance, reliability and cos... More

New Capacitor Bank Protection and Control IED model BCV

ZIV introduces the new Capacitor Bank Protection and Control IED model BCV that combines voltage or current unbalance protection with current, voltage, and frequency protection functions.The integrated automatic bank switching function saves costs and panel space. This relay includes all the features of the field proven "V series", such as revenue metering accuracy of 0.1% with 32 samples per c... More

Sub-cycle Distance Relay with automation and control capabilities

GE Digital Energy's enhanced Multilin D90Plus protection system is a single-platform solution for the protection of MV to EHV transmission lines. The Multilin D90 Plus is a sub-cycle distance relay delivering maximum performance, flexibility, and functionality. It achieves the fast sub-cycle distance protection using true CCVT filtering for improved performance without the need for intentio... More

User Friendly Transient Simulation Testing Tool

OMICRON electronics' transient network simulation software NetSim allows testing of relays under close to realistic conditions using a numerical network model to simulate processes in an electric power network composed of voltage sources, lines, circuit breakers, fault instances and switching events. It is a user friendly simulation and testing tool that provides predefined network topologies... More

Technology News

Intel Atom ? Enabling the Next Generation of Embedded Modules

The worldwide acceptance of IEC 61850 and the trends in development of different distributed applications based on the station and process bus communications defined in the standard are pushing the protection, automation and control industry towards development of a new generation of devices that can meet new design criteria. It appears that just in time Intel has introduced a new generation of pr... More

Tesla Roadster energy solutions

The dramatic increase in oil prices during the first three quarters of 2008 resulted in a significant increase in alternative vehicles. Many of the established car manufacturers have announced their intentions to deliver electric cars to the market - some later next year, with others following in 2010. In the meantime, there are several low-end electric vehicles that can be seen on the streets of ... More

The Large Hadron Collider LHC - The Biggest Toy in the World

The biggest toy in the world was delivered to physicists at 10:28 in the morning on 10 September 2008. The first beam in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) was successfully steered around the full 27 kilometers of the world's most powerful particle accelerator on the Swiss/French border. It is expected that the huge and extremely complex machin... More

Cover Story

Cyber Warriors

The evolution of threats is occurring rapidly in cyber security. Cyber Warriors: Learning from Physical Warfare Valid issues are often raised about the cost of implementation of cyber security. However, if you continue to read the article there are some non-high tech actions that can be taken in order to provide better protection. In this regard, the issues of cyber security are often t... More

IEC 61850 Update

Some clarifications on IEC 61850 process bus

With the worldwide acceptance of IEC 61850 by many utilities, process bus has become a hot topic. While IEC 61850 is becoming the widely accepted solution for communication within substations and while the second edition is in preparation, IEC 61850 process bus has become a hot topic. It was the preferential subject 1 of the CIGRE B5 session in Paris this year - more details can be found... More

Lessons Learned

Inside the Cloud: Ethernet for Teleprotection

Ethernet communication products and applications are becoming more entrenched as the new standard for data transport. Carriers are cutting costs by eliminating the need for overlay networks that require different equipment for different service types. The primary goal for carriers is to accommodate all services on a single network and Ethernet IP (Internet Protocol) appears to be the c... More


Cyber Security Threats for Protective Relays

In evaluating the security threat to substation equipment, it is apparent that numerous people have physical contact with various devices within the substation. These individuals include employees, contractors, vendors, manufacturers, etc. Of particular concern is the fact that the typical substation environment can provide a means to compromise the power system with a low probability being detec... More


Standard Network Redundancy Using IEC 62439

The IEC 61850 standard is a milestone in substation automation, replacing a plethora of busses and links by a hierarchy of well-specified switched Ethernet networks, namely the station bus between the bays and the process bus within a bay. A great achievement of IEC 61850 is the description of all communication in the substation in the Substation Configuration Language (SCL), which allowed fo... More

System Management

A Call to Action Realizing the U.S. Smart Grid

These and other intermittent resources such as photo voltaic arrays, wind farms, etc. have sprouted up all over the landscape to help mitigate the ever rising cost of energy. Imagine all these new devices, all with microcontrollers at their core, harmoniously communicating and interacting with each other keeping the Smart Grid functioning. Even with all these new technologies in place on the elec... More

Fault Clearing Systems

Dual Power Protection

Protection relay failure may be the result of component failure, operating principle, measuring transformer failure, etc. Relays are also only one of the components of a fault clearing system. As can be seen from Figure 1, a simple protection system consists of: Protection relayInstrument transformers - voltage and current as required by the applicationCircuit breakerAuxiliary power supplyWiring ... More

The Guru

The Guru

PAC World: You were born in New York City in 1925. What is the first memory that you have from your childhood? Stanley H. Horowitz: I lived in a resort area of New York City, Rockaway Beach, and my earliest memory of growing up was very traditional. In the summer we were host to the man  city dwellers trying to escape the heat but the rest of the year we were close-knit, my schoolmates w... More


Protection History

Overriding an operating current with a timing element caused unacceptable delays. A bypass was used to eliminate the timer in case of the startup of an additional overcurrent protection used in that case. When transformers with granular transformer magnetic sheet steel were introduced, the high operating currents did not allow this bypassing anymore. In 1943 AEG provided a fast protection dev... More

I Think


Author: Marco C. Janssen, UTInnovation, Netherlands There is not a newspaper, magazine or news program that does not have articles related to security. Whether it is the war on terror, hackers getting into computer systems, violence or war, everything seems to be tied to security. It almost seems as if the world has become a much more insecure place than ever, but is that really true? I thin... More

Industry Reports

CIGRE 2008 B5, preferential topic 1

The architecture of a substation automation system may significantly be changed, when a process bus based on IEC 61850 is added. Issues to be considered include testing, reliability and time synchronization. To achieve a cost reduction is one of the major drivers to introduce a process bus. A fully distributed system may offer the most flexibility. However, to address concerns on reliabili... More

IEEE Guide for Underfrequency Load-shedding and Restoration

The predominant system condition addressed by IEEE C37.117 involves the use of protective relays for underfrequency shedding of connected load in the event of insufficient generation or transmission capacity within a power system. It is performed in order to minimize the risk of a further uncontrolled system separation, loss of generation, or system shutdown. If sufficient load is shed to ... More

Conference Reports

2008 WPRC Western Protective Relay Conference

The 35th Annual Western Protective Relay Conference was held in Spokane, WA The conference is the  largest specialized conference in the field of electric power systems protection in the world. This year it was attended by about six hundred specialists from many countries. The conference program included fifty four papers covering different aspects of protection: ... More

CEPSI 2008, Macao

The 17th Conference on Electric Power Supply Industry (CEPSI 2008) was hosted by Companhia Electricidade de Macau (CEM). The 17th Conference of the Electric Power Supply Industry (CEPSI) was held from 27 to 31 of October 2008, at the Venetian Macao-Resort-Hotel. The Venetian Hotel has the largest casino in the world. At the same time it offers 100,000 square meters of flexible conve... More

CIGRE - General Session 2008, Paris, France

CIGRÉ's General Session provides a unique permanent forum for delegates and exhibitors. The 2008 CIGRE Session, as usual, was held in the Palais de Congres (Congress Palace) in Paris. It was attended by about four thousand specialists from more than eighty countries around the world - evenly representing utilities, manufacturers,  consultants, researchers, academics and students. The... More

IEEE PES, General Meeting 2008

The IEEE Power & Energy Society's 2008 General Meeting was held in Pittsburgh, PA, USA The IEEE Power & Energy Society's 2008 General Meeting was held in Pittsburgh, PA, USA from 20 to 24 of July, 2008. It was co-hosted by Allegheny Power and Duquesne Light. The General Meeting is a forum for professionals from the different fields in our industry that allows them to get together and discuss t... More

Book Review

Power Systems Relaying

Third Edition The third edition of Power System Relaying is a book that can help many students, as well as practicing specialists, to expand their knowledge and understanding of protection and its operation and impact, not only in the cases of different types of faults within the zone of protection, but also during abnormal system conditions and wide area disturbances. The author... More


Keeping the glare going

Early Dreams For as long as I can remember myself, I only wanted two things: to play the piano and to figure skate. This is all I could dream about as a child, while growing up on the White Sea, 3 degrees south of Arctic Circle, in a small apartment overlooking a year-round lit sign that read: "Our Goal is Communism". Like in a fairy tale off any bookshelf that I touched, which looked... More

Final Thoughts
Every quarter we post a question on the PAC World web site and ask you to select an answer that will help your colleagues from around the world understand the trends in our industry. Clear preference For a few months we had on the PAC World web site a simple question: What type analysis tools do you use related to protection and control? The answers to the questions you can... More

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