Autumn 2009 Issue
The  Smart Grid of the future in the minds of many people is also smart meters. However, in reality, as I believe every protection, automation and control specialist understands, it is much more than that. If we make an analogy of the grid with a human being, the smart meters and appliances are the different sensors in our body – in skin, fingers, eyes, etc. They help us collect d... More


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Industry News

AREVA IEDs for EPRI Smart Grid Research

AREVA’s Transmission and Distribution division recently announced that it will supply intelligent electronic devices to important smart grid research by the U.S.-based Electric Power Research Institute. Reinforcing its ongoing commitment to smart grid development, Areva T&D will provide EPRI with thirteen different IEDs, to be used in the Institute’s labs to be located a... More

Bitronics M650 - Three M650 models S3, B3, and M3

The Bitronics 50 Series of SCADA meters is the latest product family from Bitronics, a NovaTech Company.  M650 meters have an unrivaled display, are simple to set up and use, and offer superior communications flexibility. There are three M650 models (S3, B3, and M3) with the following key features:  Instant recognition of displayed parameter via Bitronics alphanumeri... More

Multitalented PAC Engineers

The 2009 CIGRE B5 meeting and colloquium were held in Jeju, Korea. Protection and control experts from many countries from all continents gathered at the Lotte hotel to share their experience and decide on future CIGRE activities related to the protection and control of the electric power systems. The social program this time included an event that demonstrated that protection experts a... More

Next Generation of Substation Automation

The new SEL-3530 Real-Time Automation Controller (RTAC) is a complete substation automation platform that incorporates state-of-the-art communications, security, and custom logic into exceedingly simple configuration software. The RTAC is the industry’s first automation gateway to include the IEEE C37.118 client protocol for receiving synchronized phasor messages. With the time-al... More

Online Monitoring Tool for IEC 61850 Networks

With Siemens' Online GOOSE Inspector Monitoring Tool you can capture IEC 61850 related packets from the station bus. The IEC 61850 telegrams can be decoded, checked, displayed, filtered, stored in a ring buffer and if necessary be printed. Through the Import of a Station Configuration Description file (SCD) the users of SIPROTEC devices and DIGSI, will have a clear picture with the Siem... More

Protocol in Wireshark

Since version 1.2.0 (released June 2009), the popular free protocol analyzer SW Wireshark ( supports the protocol according to the synchrophasor standard IEEE C37.118-2005. The phasor values are displayed in the common notation (magnitudes and phases) used in electrical engineering. For decoding the actual data, related configuration frames are used. The ... More

RuggedCom Introduces IEEE 1588 v2 devices

RuggedCom has introduced the RuggedSwitchTM RSG2288 and RS416 Serial Server with IEEE 1588 v2 allowing more accurate, converged data and timing networks to streamline substation operations.  The new RuggedSwitch™ RSG2288 supports IEEE 1588 v2 Master / Grand Master with: GPS input Transparent Clock and Slave Clock modes with 1us or better time accuracy ... More

SR 3 Series of protection relays - functional innovative & intuitive series

GE's Multilin SR 3 Series of protection relays is a highly functional innovative & intuitive series of relays for feeders (SR 350), motors (SR 339) and transformers (SR 345).  By providing an economical system for protection, control, monitoring and metering, and both local and remote user interfaces in one assembly, the SR 3 Series relays effectively eliminate the need for expensiv... More

Toshiba 'Micro-EMS' for Smart Grid

Smart Grids - with the introduction of renewable generation and the subsequent problems caused by intermittency on the demand-supply balance Toshiba have introduced a ‘Micro-EMS’ which will reduce the impact of power fluctuations on power system frequency and voltage. Sudden changes in the weather have an immediate impact on the output of renewable generation such as win... More

Technology News

Augmented Reality

New Popular Resource     Augmented reality (AR) is a term that is becoming increasingly popular with recent developments in technology – advanced low power chips and new operating systems in mobile devices, built-in GPS and high-speed communications. The term is believed to have been first used by Thomas Caudell from Boeing in 1990. The augmentation of reali... More

The Google Chrome OS - rethinking what an operating system should be

Nine months after the launch of the Google Chrome browser, the company announced a new project as its natural extension - the Google Chrome Operating System. It is an attempt to rethink what operating systems should be. The main reason behind this effort is the fact that the operating systems that browsers run on were designed in an era where there was no web. So Google Chrome OS is anno... More


Transmission Technology WiMAX  is a telecommunications technology for wireless transmission of data using  a variety of transmission modes with speed up to 3 Mbit/s based on the IEEE 802.16 standard. The name is an acronym for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access created by the WiMAX Forum to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum desc... More

Cover Story

Wide Area ? Protection and Monitoring

Operating on tight margins and with less redundancy, power systems are sometimes just a couple of unexpected (and unlikely) contingencies away from a blackout, as the experience from the years past has repeatedly shown.  Transformation of power networks into modern structures makes them harder to protect, through addition of non-utility generators, heavy tie line transfers in a growi... More

IEC 61850 Update

IEC 61850 - a protocol?

The last issue of PAC World included the following comment: "IEC 61850 is becoming the standard communications protocol in substations." The reader suggested that IEC 61850 should not be inferred as being “just” a protocol on the basis that IEC 61850 is a definition of objects and commands that communicate using TCP/IP protocol. Declaring IEC 61850 as just a protocol does not unde... More

Lessons Learned

Islanding Protection with Active and Reactive Power Control

Most of the indigenous load is supplied from the bulk 500 kV-power system via the parallel 275 kV tie transmission lines. This metropolitan system consists entirely of 275 kV, 154 kV and 66 kV underground cables. If the power supply from the bulk 500 kV- power system is interrupted by a fault on the tie transmission line, the metropolitan power system will be separated as a heavily overl... More

The Colombian Blackout

The Colombian Blackout

Blackout Watch Understanding what happened can help us prevent it in the future. On April 26th, 2007, at 9:58 am, the country of Colombia suffered a total blackout that affected 25 million people; with a cost of US $130 million, it was the worst blackout in the last 22 years in Colombia.  This blackout was due to human error at the 230 KV Torca substation:  An operator at t... More

State Estimation

Distributed State Estimator via the SuperCalibrator Approach

Figure 1 provides a schematic illustration of the traditional state estimation procedure.  In the lower part of the figure the data acquisition systems at the substation level are illustrated. A communications system brings all data to a central location, the control center. At the control center the data are utilized to extract the system model in real time using state estimation tech... More

System Integrity Protection

Wide Area Special Protection Schemes - Design and Implementation

These widespread outages have demonstrated the vulnerability of the interconnected power systems worldwide when operated outside intended design limits.  The exposure of the power system to wide area collapse have increased in recent years as the power systems have been pushed to their operating limits - often resulting in violation of operating policies and planning standards. One o... More

Legal Issue

On the Subject of Blackouts

With the holiday season rapidly approaching, it is time once again for decorating Christmas trees, hunting for gifts for friends and family, and delicious, highly caloric feasts and goodies.  But for many of us this is also the season when we are most reliant on power and energy, and most concerned that it is dependable.  For those of us in the Northern hemisphere, as the leaves ch... More

Protection Monitoring & Control

Wide Area Protection Systems in Brazil

The three topics below show how Brazil is pragmatically handling Wide Area Protection Systems (WAPS) nowadays. Brazilian main WAPS aim to prevent mostly the occurrence of electromechanical unstable conditions. In fact, Brazil has a long experience with the so-called Special Protection Schemes (SPS), both for NIPS alternate current part, as well as for its 7,000 MW ± 600 kV HVDC lin... More

The Guru

Dr. Fayek Farid Faragalla

PAC World:   Dr. Fayek Farid Faragalla, when and where were you born? F.F.: I was born in a village called "Courashia" in the Delta Region of Egypt, where my father was working in a Governmental Administration that was responsible for managing the State Land. PAC World:  Where did you grow up? F.F.:  At the age of five, I moved to live with my grandparents ... More


Protection History: Generator Protection

The first protection devices for overload, short-circuit, over- and undervoltage, as well as differential and reverse-power protection were described in the last issues of PAC World. Another possibility to limit damages was made available by the introduction of ground-fault protection. The magnitude of the expected fault current depends on the type of star point grounding of the gene... More

I Think

We are the masters of our destiny

Because of the Smart Grid hype a whole range of new acronyms are conquering the world by storm. I will not start a list of acronyms here, but it seems like our industry has finally embraced modern technology and is now stumbling to come up with sexy, techy names for the solutions that are being proposed. The latest fad in the Smart Grid arena is that after making things smart they now als... More

Industry Reports

Defense Plans against Extreme Contingencies

Since the shock of the 1965 North American blackout, other multi-million-dollar blackouts have continued to occur throughout the world. Though each event is analyzed carefully, and targeted corrective actions are identified, additional comprehensive system-wide measures are still needed to protect against severe unforeseen fast-developing cascading events. The CIGRE Technical Brochure C2.0... More

The North American Synchro-Phasor Initiative (NASPI)

The North American SynchroPhasor Initiative (NASPI) is a joint effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC).  The goal is to improve power system reliability through wide-area measurement, monitoring and control. This will be achieved by facilitating a robust, widely available and secure synchronized data measurement... More

Conference Reports

2nd Scientific & Technical Conference, 2009

Actual Trends in Development of Power System Protection & Automation by A. Podshivalin, J. Zakonjsek, G. Nudelman, Russia The System operator of the Russian Unified Power System (SO UPS), Russian National Committee (RNC) of CIGRE and All-Russian Scientific Research & Development Technological Institute of Relay Engineering (VNIIR) organized an international forum on relay pro... More

APAP Conference, 18 - 21 October 2009, Jeju, South Korea

This conference focuses on establishing global cooperation channels among researchers and engineers. The third International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection (APAP 2009) was held from 18  to 21 October 2009 at the Lotte Hotel Jeju, Seogwipo, Jeju, Korea. The conference was organized by Next-generation Power Technology Center (NPTC) Korea Electrical M... More

IPTS - International Protection Testing  Symposium, 2009

An event that brings together protection and control specialist from around the world. The International Protection Testing Symposium (IPTS) was held at the Borsensale in Vienna, the beautiful capital of Austria, on 13 and 14 October, 2009. The symposium is an event that brings together protection and control specialist from around the world to discuss different issues rela... More

VIII SIMPASE - Electrical System Automation Symposium

by Hyder DoCarmo, OMICRON electronics Corp. USA The VIII Symposium of Automation of Electrical Systems was held in the beautiful Barra da Tijuca section of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 9 - 14, 2009. This CIGRE -sponsored biannual event was hosted by Light Serviços de Eletricidade S.A. and the Brazilian National Committee of Electrical Energy Production and Transmission.... More

Western Protective Relay Conference, 2009

The Western Protective Relay Conference (WPRC) is an annual event held in the second half of each year in Spokane, Washington, USA. This is probably the  largest specialized conference in the field of electric power systems protection in the world. It is an educational forum organized by Washington State University for the presentation and detailed technical discussion of broad ran... More

Book Review

Protection Systems in Large Electrical Power Networks

First Edition - volumes 1 & 2 The protection of high voltage electric power systems is becoming more and more important due to the changes in the industry that require improvements in the performance of the protection systems and taking advantage of protection functions available in modern relays. One of the main problems of our industry is the loss of expertise caused by the aging ... More


Wildlife Photography Anytime, Any Place

One of the benefits of traveling with colleagues is that you have the time to talk to them and learn what they are passionate about. Here is Randy's story... On a warm winter’s day: It is 7 AM on a winter morning. The sun will not rise for a while, which is perfect as we need a couple of hours to get to our destination. A patch of black ice sends us hurtling off the road. My friend ... More

Final Thoughts
Is IEC 61850 a protocol? We appreciate your articles, news, feedback or any information that will help us paint a broader picture of the IEC 61850 role and the future of our industry. One of our readers did not agree with a sentence from this column in the Summer 2009 issue (see the Letters section). Christoph Brunner then selected to ask in his column the question "Is IEC 61850 a pro... More

Power. Flexible. Easergy.
BeijingSifang June 2016