June 2012 Issue
Those changes are not only in the technology that we use to control and protect the different components of the electric power system, but the system itself is changing. And adaptation is the only way to react in order to improve the efficiency and in some cases even simply to survive. That is why in this issue of the PACWorld magazine we decided to include a collection of articles that d... More


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Industry News

ABB - New Relion® 611

 New 611 product series for power distribution applications The new Relion® 611 series cost effectively fulfills the protection and control needs of utility and industrial power systems as well as power distribution systems in medium voltage networks. The pre-configured functionality, offered as application specific standard configurations enable reduced engineering needs and fast... More

IEEE and Smart Grid

The "smart grid" is a hot topic that is taking a leading position in defining the direction in which future electric power systems will be operated, controlled and protected. Many tasks that are covered within the concept of the smart grid are not new, however they can be achieved in practice based on the development and improvement of different technologies that are being used in the gene... More


IEC 61850-9-2 Process Bus Option Launches in Alstom’s MiCOM P40 IEDs The process bus interface allows relays to receive current and voltage sampled data from non-conventional instrument transformers such as optical and Rogowski devices.  In other digital substation architectures, the -9-2 data is generated by merging units in the yard, which digitize  conventional 1A/5A a... More

New IEDScout available

OMICRON electronics presents IEDScout - Powerful functions for protection and SCADA engineers IEDScout is a universal client to IEC 61850 servers and a publisher/subscriber for GOOSE messages. Version 3 provides extended functionality for the in-depth investigation of Client/Server (SCADA) communication. Client/Server and GOOSE communication can be displayed in one combined list of events.... More

New SEL Axion?

The new modules and protocols add flexibility and control Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. announced new modules and protocols for its remote terminal unit (RTU) or programmable logic control (PLC) platform, the SEL-2240 Axion. Customers can now order low-voltage power supplies, four-slot backplanes, dual four-slot backplanes, and IEC 61850 GOOSE. SEL continues to develop new... More

TOSHIBA Launch GR-200 Series

Next generation protection & control IED  Toshiba announces the launch of their next generation protection & control IED for transmission and distribution networks. The GR-200 Series provides a platform for distributed and renewable energy systems by using an application oriented implementation based upon independent function blocks. The platform can be supplied with both standard LCD a... More

Technology News

Atomic Clock

SA.45s CSAC The continuously increasing requirements for microsecond accuracy of time synchronization of multifunctional IEDs, IEC 61850 merging units (MU) and phasor measurement units (PMU) and their application for protection and control resulted in the use of different solutions based on GPS technology. However, the dependency on GPS is a concern, due to the possibilities of denial-of-se... More

Wind Lens

Improving the Efficiency of Wind Turbines Wind power is considered as one of the main renewable energy resources, with individual wind turbines or massive wind farms being connected to electric power systems all over the world.  Like with any other engineering task,  researchers are looking for ways to improve the efficiency of the machines. The wind energy section of Kyushu University has d... More

Cover Story

ADAPTIVE PROTECTION of Electric Power Systems

The performance of protection devices and systems is affected by many different factors. Some of them are related to variations in loads or generation, others have to do with changes in the topology of the system. The fact that protection devices do not directly measure the primary system state and parameters, but rely on auxiliary contacts, instrument transformers and secondary wiring may ... More

IEC 61850 Update

IEC 61850 in the view of European TSO

The European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E) recently published a statement on the IEC 61850 standard, and also provided some observations and recommendations. It states that the "standard is of potentially large  benefit to electricity transmission  system  operators  (TSOs)  as  it addresses across different vendors many c... More

Lessons Learned

Sample Implementation of Adaptive Protection for Low Voltage Networks

Up until recently the existence of distributed generation (DG) was limited, and therefore, had little impact on the operation of the system as a whole. Consequently, the regulatory framework and the connection requirements have been restrictive to protect the integrity of passive radial distribution systems. But as the pressure of climate change issues combines with the concerns over a securi... More

Brazilian Blackout 2012

Brazilian Blackout 2012

Disturbance analysis: The disturbance began with the incidence of a highly resistive fault on 500 kV TL Angra - Sao Jose. The fault occurred during tree pruning services in the TL right of way. The fault was cleared by correct simultaneous tripping of main 1 and 2 directional residual overcurrent protections at both terminals through permissive overreach transfer trip teleprotection schemes.... More

Adaptive Line Differential Protection

Adaptive Line Differential Protection

To address these challenges, microprocessor-based line differential relays apply elaborate operating characteristics, which are often different than a traditional percentage differential characteristic used for bus or transformer protection. These sophisticated elements may include adaptive restraining terms, apply an Alpha Plane, use external fault detection logic for extra security, and so ... More

Data Mining

Data Mining Based Adaptive Protection

Reliability in power system protection comprehends two aspects: dependability and security. Dependability is the measure of the certainty that the relays will operate correctly for all of the faults for which they are designed to operate. Security is defined as the measure of the certainty that the relays will not operate incorrectly for any fault. In general, enhancing security implies an... More

Legal Issue

Employer's Searches

Another sensitive component of Employee Privacy are searches  of employees conducted at the workplace. This aspect of employees privacy, especially in the public sector of employment which is protected under the Fourth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution against unreasonable search and seizure, is a rather complicated issue. While employee privacy is protected by some court rulings, it is not... More

Adaptive Protection

Adaptive Protection Deployment in Special Protection Schemes for Hydro Quebec?s transmission grid

Acknowledgement: The authors wish to acknowledge the expert input and creative spirit of Hydro Quebec's IREQ research institute, without whom this product could not have been conceived. This article includes a summary of work performed with the assistance and dedication of a number of Hydro-Québec researchers and engineers including: Dac-Phuoc Bui, Manuela Dobrescu, Robert Grondin, A... More

The Guru

Interview with PACWorld guru: Gyuia Poka

PAC World:  When and where were you born and grew up? G.P.: I was born in Kispest near Budapest on the 8th July, 1929. I spent my youth in Budapest. I have always been a city fellow. PAC World:  What were your interests when you were a teenager? G.P.:  There was an Aero Modeling Club in my secondary school. I liked modeling airplanes; I designed and set some glider models. One of the... More


History Protection - Generations of Protection

Generations of Protection The development of protection took place according to the development of the energy systems and the devices used. The progress in development as well as the new requirements of the customers have been the base for several activities. In the last issues we covered history of line protection as well as for transformers and generators. The new series shall cov... More

I Think

Are we the mothers of modern society?

We were at a conference this week and after watching several technical sessions a very close friend of mine, who is not an engineer, made a few remarks that made me think. The first comment was “how is it possible that there are so many engineers behind the power outlet, I never thought making electricity work could be that complicated.” The second comment was “how is ... More

Industry Reports

CIGRE Technical Brochure 465

Modern Techniques for Protecting and Monitoring of Transmission Lines Working Group B5.07 Working Group B5.07 Report Members of Working group B5.07 Simon Chano, (CA) - Convener João E. Afonso, (PT) - Secretary, Alex Apostolov (US), Anand Menon (CH), Demetrios Tziouvaras (US), Florin Balasiu (RO), Gareth Baber (UK), Juan Maria García (ES), Kai Kühl (CH), Kenneth Opsk... More

Conference Reports

Developments in Power System Protection, 2012

DPSP attracted an international audience of over 300 delegates. The Conference was held 23-26 April at the ICC (International Convention Center) Birmingham. The conference is now a bi-annual event organized by IET (the Institution of Engineering and Technology).  It has established itself as one of the leading forums for academics, industry and business leaders to meet, publish results ... More

Georgia Tech Fault & Disturbance Analysis

The 15th Annual Conference was held 23-24 April 2012at the Georgia Tech Global Learning Center in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The event is jointly organized by The Transient Recorder Users Council and Georgia Tech. This is the only international conference that specializes in the analysis of short circuit faults, local and wide area disturbances. Other topics of interest include the tools that a... More

Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers

The event was held at Texas A&M University, College Station. The 65th annual Conference is a significant milestone in the history of our industry in North America and probably in the world as well. As Dr. Russell said in his welcome address, it is possibly the longest continually running industry conference at Texas A&M. The conference was preceded by an IEEE Tutorial on the Protection ... More

Western Power Delivery Automation Conference, 2012

The event was held 27-29 March 2012 in Spokane, Washington, USA The 14th Annual Western Power Delivery Automation Conference was held at the historical Davenport Hotel in Spokane, Washington. The conference is a two and a half day event that focuses on the issues of automation and control of power systems within the context of a smart grid. The conference program included a keynote prese... More

Book Review

Disturbance Analysis for Power Systems

First Edition Reviewed by Alexander Apostolov, USA There are many ways that a protection engineer can learn about technology and its applications. The typical ones are taking classes or reading books on the subject. This is a good way to start and get an idea of what it is all about in an ideal world. The problem is that the real world is different, and that is why we need experienc... More


The Amazing World of Scuba Diving

by Thomas Muhe, OMICRON electronics, Klaus, Austria How it all began:  We started diving in the summer of 1996. Two years earlier however, we had our first trip to Egypt. During two fantastic weeks of some snorkeling on the house reef we decided to take a diving course during the next trip.  One year later however, we couldn’t find a suitable diving school and so we postponed the cour... More

Final Thoughts
Happy Anniversary! It is hard to believe that PAC World is reaching such a milestone. It feels like yesterday when Rainer Aberer asked us to start the PAC World magazine. His idea was to help the electric power systems protection, automation and control industry by providing a forum for all of us to share with our friends and colleagues from around the world the challenges that we are... More

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