On the Way to IEDs

by Walter Schossig, Germany

The huge step from protection relays to IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Devices) was described in the last issue- the combination of protection and control in a single device. Digital relays became widely accepted since 1990. Mechanical and especially static relays became less attractive. At the turn of millennium more than 100 000 digital relays were installed in Germany.  A lot of substations have been retrofitted with digital protection. More

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