Winter 2008 Issue
Some of you may ask, "Why do you start with this topic? Transmission line protection has been around for quite some time.There are many books and a plethora of papers and articles about it." That is true and it is in fact the reason that drove us to begin with this topic. Let me explain: When we have done some tasks over and over for many years, using the same tools, following the same routine, w... More


Don't hesitate. Tell us what you like, and what we can do better. Share your thoughts and experience. Congratulations on an excellent start. The content... More


Industry News

AREVA T&D opens North American Center of Excellence

In order to optimize the service level for its Protection and Substation Automation customers in North America, AREVA's Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Division has created a center of excellence at its existing site in La Prairie, Quebec.As of December 1st, 2007, Protection, Substation Automation and associated service activities, currently conducted out of AREVA's Bethlehem, PA facility in t... More

GARD 8000 IEC 61850 Compliant System

The GARD 8000 Communications and Relaying System from RFL Electronics, Inc. includes an Ethernet communication module that provides a "bridge" for substation-to-substation communications in an IEC 61850 application.The communication media between the substations can be any of the media GARD 8000 supports; fiber,T1/SONET (E1/SDH), audio-tone or Power Line Carrier. Alternatively, the Ethernet commun... More

Generator Protection Control

The SICAM & SIPROTEC Generator Protection, Control & Monitoring System is a complete ready to install solution for local plant power generation and distribution systems. The system is suitable for integration into most generator manufacturer's digital engine and voltage controls. It can be extended into other distribution switchgear lineups to provide complete automated logic control and interlock... More

Non-Operational Data Access

Accessing breaker wear, fault records and oscillography from relays is now easier through the use of a set of software tools for the Orion Automation Platform. An Orion Software Suite includes tools to: Access relays remotely, through OrionMake Breaker Wear, History and Short Event Summaries available to SCADAAutomatically retrieve, parse and disseminate Full-Length Event Report to enterprise PCs... More

Powerful Dynamic Range Test Equipment

OMICRON electronics proudly introduces the CMC 356, uniquely designed for the modern requirements of protection & control testing and commissioning/maintaining substations. It exceeds expectations with powerful, wide dynamic range current sources (1mA resolution, 6x32A or 3x64A or 1x128A rms @ max 6x430VA). Unmatched versatility: test high-burden, electro-mechanical relays (or an entire panel of t... More

Successful Site Trial of Toshiba's Ground-Breaking Relay

Toshiba's new line differential protection GRL150 has been successfully applied on a 33kV cable-feeder circuit with UK utility SP Power Systems. GRL150 is an advanced numerical relay which can act as a direct replacement for conventional analogue pilot-wire differential relays, connecting directly to the metallic pilots via integral 5 kV isolation without the need for external modems or other equi... More

Tough Ethernet Switch Operates in Extreme Conditions Without Losing Data

Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL) i s now shipping the SEL-2725 Five-Port Ethernet Switch, an unmanaged edge switch and media converter, Connect the wired Ethernet ports of four devices to an SEL-2725 using Category 5 shielded, twisted-pair cables. Safely link to a station Ethernet network with the fiber-optic port.The SEL-2725 is a tough, reliable solution for a wide variety of appl... More

Understanding Cyber Security Standards

Electric power system protection, automation and control devices perform many functions over different communications interfaces. This requires careful consideration by industry experts in order to ensure that all developed standards and recommendations can be successfully implemented without causing a decrease in the performance of any of the system components or functions. These are some of the ... More

Wide Area Coordination Study of Protection Coordination in the Transmission System and Boundaries

Detecting a lack of coordination before relay misoperations occur reduces risk of interruptions in service, brownouts, and blackouts. Automated Wide Area Coordination reviews are a practical way to increase system reliability.In 2006, Rede Eléctrica de España (in Madrid) conducted a wide area review of protection coordination in a large portion of their transmission network, including the boundari... More

Technology News

Impact of Sun Storms on GPS based devices

The impact of sun storms on electric power grids has been subject to many papers, articles and reports during the last two decades.System disturbances caused by solar activity can disrupt complex power grids due to the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) resulting from the interaction of the Earth's magnetic field and ionized particles carried by the solar wind. Severe magnetic storms induce el... More

Microsoft "Surface" Puts People in Control

Imagine being able to place a relay on your desk, and the desk suddenly comes alive, pops-up the settings of the distance zones, shows the loading of the transmission line it is installed on and the apparent impedance seen by the relay, while at the same time your colleague is looking at the COMTRADE file from the latest relay operation.This and much more will be soon possible with the recently an... More

Wireless Power Transfer - it is Real!

I believe everybody was happy when we were able to get rid of all the phone and Ethernet cable and connect to the Internet using WiFi. But we still need to plug in all our electronic devices to charge their batteries. And with all of them having different adaptors, connectors, voltage levels, etc., they create a big mess around us. The dream for wireless power transfer is not something new. A team... More

Cover Story

Transmission Line Protection - Doing it Right

The Hydro Québec Transmision GridHydro-Québec TranÉnergie (HQT) operates the most extensive transmission system in North America. The system comprises 32,826 km of lines at different voltages ranging from 765 kV to 69 kV or less that deliver reliable power from 508 transmission substations and 18 interconnections to customers in Québec, other parts of Canada and the United States. Extreme long 735... More

IEC 61850 Update

IEC 61850 - Functional Hierarchy

During the recent IEEE relay meeting, the issue about functional hierarchy was once again raised and the question was asked, whether this will be addressed in IEC 61850, Edition 2 and if yes, how? The short answer is yes - that will be addressed. It is  described as "management hierarchy" in the current draft of IEC 61850-7-1, Ed 2... For the long answer, we will need to have a look at some ... More

Lessons Learned

Pilot Protection System Failure - an Investigation

Protection system failures are sometimes hard to detect, especially in the case of electromechanical relays with no inherent self-testing or alarming. It often takes a misoperation of the protection system and the following investigation to discover the problem. At this point it is too late and the damage is already done. This paper examines an event on the Oncor Electric Delivery system in which ... More

Line Constants

Analysis of Measured Transmission Line Constants

The accuracy of line impedance data has great impact on system analysis. The transmission line constants are the most important element of data needed for the operation of an electric power network. It comprises positive-sequence impedance (Z1), zero-sequence impedance (Z0) and admittance. The parameters of line constants are conventionally computed by calculation programs, and the measured va... More

Protection - Goose

High Performance IEC 61850 GOOSE and Protection Relay Testing

IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging is applied for Substation Automation Systems and for status interactions between IEDs by replacing the conventional method of using binary inputs/outputs and wires with communication over Ethernet cables/fibers. With its fast transfer characteristics, it is also applied for protection testing purposes. In order to confirm the basic functionality of IEC 61850 and GOOSE mes... More

Protection - IEC 61850

IEC 61850 Process Bus - It is Real!

The new international standard for substation communications IEC 61850 allows the development of a new generation of substation protection,automation and control systems that results in significant reduction of the overall cost of such systems, while at the same time improves the functionality of different applications. Non-conventional instrument transformers with digital interface based on IEC 6... More

Transmission Protection

Brazilian Transmission Line Protection Issues and their Solutions

The main issue related to transmission line protection seems to be the large number of specific cases. The Brazilian electric system is singular due to its large geographical area, supplied mainly by hydro power plants located on rivers far from the load centers. The main generation source is Itaipu, a bi-national (Brazil & Paraguay) power plant with an installed capacity of 12,600 MW. Large port... More

ESKOM - Transmission Line Protection Issues and Their Solutions

One of the main challenges currently being faced is an increase in the number of high resistance faults which fall outside the capability of the impedance protection. The current solution being considered is to apply direction earth-fault comparison protection as an additional protection function. Eskom is the South African electricity utility, generating 95% of the electricity used in South Afr... More

RTE - Transmission Line Protection (Issues and Solutions)

RTE is the French Transmission System Operator. It operates a network comprising approximately 100 000 km of lines and 2450 substations. Almost half of the lines correspond to the transmission level (400 kV and 225 kV) including the interconnections to the neighbor countries, the other half belong to the regional sub-transmission level (90 kV and 63 kV). Today, RTE operates approximately 16,000 li... More

Western Power Transmission Line Protection Design and Philosophy

Western Power is the state-owned utility of Western Australia and operates various voltage levels in Transmission and Distribution network. Transmission voltages include 66KV to 330KV covering a large area connected through the network (South West Interconnected System-SWIS). It contains around 88000 km of power lines with load around 3600MW.  The complete scheme for 220KV and 330KV lines con... More

The Guru

The Guru

Still too many things interest me. I would like to work as long as my head can be of any use...It is interesting to solve difficult problems..Solving two or even more tasks simultaneously is more brain training than complication.Sergei Petrov PAC World: Sergei Yakovlevich, you have left behind several historical epochs. Could you tell us about your childhood?SP: I grew up in Feodosia (Crimea, ... More


Distance Protection: The Early Developments

The Zoned Voltage Drop ProtectionAt the beginning of the 20th century, effective protection coordination using overcurrent or directional overcurrent relays was no longer sufficient due to high clearing times and operation with spur lines and rings circuits. Distance protection became the most important protection technology. Krämer, Chr., F&G proposed a protection device with the basic structur... More

I Think

Are Power System Engineers Crazy?

Author: Marco C. Janssen, UTInnovation, NetherlandsIn the coming ten years a generation of engineers will retire and there will not be anyone to take our place! I am calling out for us to start a global campaign to market our profession...  As we all should know the electric utility industry is the basis for the digital economy of today and it will be for every economy tomorrow. Without e... More

Industry Reports

Cyber Security Issues for Protective Relays

In a major move toward ensuring the reliability of the electric grid, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) approved eight cyber security and critical infrastructure protection (CIP) standards proposed by NERC, CIP 002-1 to 009-1. The standards will require bulk power system users, owners, and operators in the U.S. to identify and document cyber risks and vulnerabilities, establish contr... More

Impact of IEC 61850 on Protection and Automation

IEC 61850, the standard for communication in substations was published three years ago and is already widely used in Substation Automation projects. The goal of the standard is interoperability between devices from different manufacturers. It supports the interconnection of all applications in the substation automation (SA) system from the station level with its HMI and remote control gateway to t... More

Conference Reports

CIGRE B5 Colloquium, Madrid, Spain

The CIGRE B5 Colloquium is biannual event held in different countries around the world. The capital of Spain, Madrid, hosted the Annual Meeting and Colloquium of CIGRÉ Study Committee B5 from 15th to 20th of October 2007. This event is held every two years in different venues all over the world with a worldwide perspective and participation. The 2007 event venue was the Palacio de Congresos de M... More

Protection Conference 2007, New Delhi, India

The conference provided an environment for sharing ideas and experience. The Central Board of Irrigation & Power organized the 4th international conference on "Power System Protection and Automation" that was held at Hotel Le-Meridien in New Delhi, 21-22 November 2007. New Delhi is currently the capital of India. Most of the city was planned by Sir Edwin Lutyens, considered by some as the grea... More

Relay Protection & Substation Automation Conference, Russia

Participation in the Conference was open for all the experts interested in the preferential subjects chosen for discussion. The Russian National Committee of CIGRE (RNC CIGRE) and the All-Russian Relay Research, Design & Technology Institute (VNIIR) along with the System Operator for UES of Russia and the Federal Grid Company organized the International Conference on Relay Protection and Substa... More

SEAPAC 2007 held in Sidney, Australia

The conference was a great success by all reports from the 115 attendees. Many reported that this was a unique event in the Australian calendar. The Australian National Committee of CIGRE and the B5 Protection & Automation Panel organized the South East Asia Protection & Automation Conference. Its goal was to help participants to respond to the increasing pressure on utilities to provide ever m... More

SIMPASE 2007 held in Salvador, Brazil

The Symposium of Electric Power Systems Automation is among the most important conferences of the Brazilian Power System. The VII SIMPASE - Symposium of Electric Power Systems Automation was held in Salvador, Brazil from August 5 to 10, 2007. Having existed for more than 15 years, SIMPASE is now considered as one of the most important Brazilian conferences in its area. SIMPASE is a biennial mee... More

Western Protective Relay Conference, USA

The 34th Western Protective Relay Conference was held in Spokane, Washington, USA from 16 to 18 October, 2007. It is an annual event hosted by Washington State University and offers the attendees from many countries the opportunity to discuss new developments in power systems protection, as well as the application of such devices or systems in the field. The wide range of protection and protecti... More

Book Review

Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications

The Third Edition of Protective Relaying, Principles and Applications comes twenty years after the first edition of the book that has been one of the key reference books for protection engineers in North America, as well as many others around the world. The popularity of the original was mainly due to the style of the book - straightforward and application oriented. The core of this book, is... More


The Magic Curtain

It is an interesting feeling when you meet someone at a conference or standardization working group, and you know that there is something special about that person. This is where Google helps, when you do a search on "Andrea Bonnetti" some unexpected information pops-up... Engineering and MagicMy interest in magic started around 1982-1983. My first magic shows in front of real audiences took pl... More

Final Thoughts
 With two issues of PAC World already on your desk and the rich content you can find on the web site I guess you realize that we are trying to provide you with a wide range of information that will keep you up to date on what is going on in our industry.For several months, we had on the PAC World web site a simple question: Do you, or your company plan on purchasing IEC 61850 equipment? We ... More

Entire PAC World - Winter 2008 Issue (PDF version: 13.5 MB in size)

Power. Flexible. Easergy.
Let?s start with organization in protection testing