Synchronized Phasor Measurements and Their Applications

Synchronized Phasor Measurements and Their Applications

By Arun G. Phadke and James S. Thorp

Hardcover

Published by Springer

ISBN: 978-0-387-76535-8

 

 

Reviewed by Alex Apostolov, USA
At a time when our industry is transitioning into a smarter grid we need to look carefully at all available technologies in order to take advantage of what they offer and use them to improve the efficiency of the protection, automation and control of the electric power system, especially under abnormal system conditions. Synchronized phasor measurements are one of the tools that are available to us to help us achieve this goal. Good understanding of what they are, how they are measured and what applications can be based on them is essential for their successful use in electric power systems.

The authors of the book are very familiar to the PAC community and have been associated with the development of this technology from the very beginning and still are today. Their goal in writing the book has been to help the reader understand how the technology was developed, what are the basic building blocks of synchronized phasor measurement systems and their existing and emerging applications.

The book is divided in two parts, the first covering phasor measurement techniques and the second - phasor measurement applications.

The first part includes six chapters, starting with an introduction covering a historical overview and some basic signal processing concepts. The next two chapters describe phasor estimation of nominal and off-nominal frequency inputs.

Chapter 4 covers the estimation of the system frequency based on balanced three phase or unbalanced inputs.
After the reader has been introduced to the principles of synchrophasor related measurements, in Chapter 6 the authors concentrate on the components of systems based on synchronized phasor measurement. The Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) and the Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) are described together with the global positioning system and the hierarchical view of the system, and its communications.

The last chapter of Part 1 analyzes the transient response of phasor measurement units, including the nature of transients in power systems and the transient response of instrument transformers. The transient response of filters is also presented.

The first chapter in Part 2 covers the most popular until now synchrophasor application – support for state estimation. Methods for static and dynamic state estimation, error detection and calibration are discussed. Chapter 8 then describes control applications using synchronized phasor measurements as an input.

Chapter 9 considers the possible applications of synchrophasors for power system protection. Transmission line differential and distance protection, as well as adaptive and backup protection are covered. Some wide area protection applications, such as intelligent islanding and supervisory load shedding are described.

The last chapter of the book analyzes electromechanical wave propagation and its impact on different types of protection systems.

Considering the material covered in the book and the continuously growing number of installations with multifunctional IEDs with integrated synchrophasor measurements, it is clear that the book is a must for all protection, automation and control specialists who would like to take advantage of this technology and improve the performance of the electric power grid under abnormal system conditions.

Let?s start with organization in protection testing