Integration of Distributed Generation in the Power System

by Math H. Bollen and Fainan Hassan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA - IEEE Press
Copyright 2011
ISBN: 978-0-470-64337-2

The introduction of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) of many different types and sizes is one of the most important changes in the electric power systems, especially in distribution systems, where in the past we were used to single source radial topology. This has a significant impact on the protection, automation and control due to the different behavior and fault current contributions of the different types of DERs.
This is one of the reasons that this book can be a very helpful source of information for experienced and young engineers that need to get a better understanding of the changes in protection and control principles, as well as the need for proper modeling of DERs in fault and coordination studies.

Chapter 1 is an introduction that discusses first the main reasons for the introduction of DERs and briefly describes the structure of the book.

Chapter 2 concentrates on the different types of energy resources, mainly wind power, solar power, combined heat-and-power, hydropower, tidal power, wave power, geothermal power and thermal power plants as well as the interface with the electric power grid.

Chapter 3 discusses the impact of distributed generation on the electric power system and also describes one of the main concepts in the book - hosting capacity. It is defined as the amount of distributed generation for which the performance becomes unacceptable. This chapter also looks at the issues of power quality and the approaches that can help to prevent distributed generation from interfering with the goals of the electric power system.

Chapters 4 to 8 discuss in detail the impact of distributed generation on specific aspects of the power system - from overloading and losses, voltage variation and power quality impact to transmission system operation.

Of specific interest to specialists from our community is Chapter 7 which focuses on the impact on protection. The chapter starts with an overview of the impact of distributed generation on the performance of distribution protection systems and the potential for their unwanted operation or failure to operate. This is followed by an analysis of overcurrent protection and the calculation of fault currents for different types of faults. All calculations are based on the synchronous generators model, however at the end of this section there is a short discussion on the fault contributions of induction generators, double-fed induction generators and DERs that are connected using power electronics. After discussing the calculation of hosting capacity, the chapter focuses on the use of specific types of protection, such as busbar and generator protection, as well as methods for increasing the hosting capacity through advanced protection devices and schemes.

The bibliography at the end of the book includes close to five hundred sources.
The book is a little bit more than 500 pages and is very well organized, probably because of the teaching and industrial background of the authors. The use of specific examples and case studies makes the presentation of the material very clear. It is a valuable source of information for everyone interested in the protection, automation and control of systems integrating distributed generation.  

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