Testing of Protection and Automation Systems

Testing of Distance Protection Relays

Distance protection relays have changed dramatically in the last two decades from simple single function distance protection relays into multifunctional IEDs with primary transmission line protection functions based on classical or advanced operating principles. More

Impedance Measurements

The performance of transmission line protection relays when a fault occurs in the system is important for improvements in the stability of the system and reduction of their effect on sensitive loads. Reducing the fault clearing time for more possible fault conditions is one of the main goals in the development, application and setting of such relays. More

Application Case Of End-To-End Relay Testing

This paper reviews the philosophy of the end-to-end relay testing using GPS-synchronized secondary injection in communication based protection schemes.
The paper describes an application case at a Distribution Division in Jalísco, Mexico, operated by the national utility CFE (Comisión Federal de Electricidad). More

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