Fault Location on Power Networks

Authors: M.M.Saha, J. Izykowski, E. Rosolowski
Printed by Springer
Product ISBN: 978-1-84882-885-8


In the time when the electric power industry is moving in the direction of a smarter grid, one of the important requirements for faster progress is the understanding of the different technologies that can help us achieve this goal.

One of the first non-protection functions that have been implemented for more than two decades since microprocessors started slowly getting into substation devices, is fault location. Even though so many people have been using the technology for many years, there is not sufficient understanding by a lot of people of the details, challenges and benefits of the different methods being used for determining the location of a fault on a transmission line or a distribution feeder.

The technology has significantly changed since the beginning and the requirements for improvements in the accuracy of fault location have been pushing researchers from industry and universities to look for better methods. This book can help us in these efforts, because it is written by authors from both university and relay manufacturer domains and is aimed at the audience of application, design and R&D engineers in protective relaying and automation, as well as at university graduate and continuous-education students and is intended to link the design and application perspectives of the subject.

The nine chapters are organized according to the design of different locators. The authors do not simply refer the reader to manufacturers' documentation, but instead have compiled detailed information to allow for in-depth comparison. Fault Location on Power Lines describes basic algorithms used in fault locators, focusing on fault location on overhead transmission lines, but also covering fault location in distribution networks. An application of artificial intelligence in this field is also presented, to help the reader understand all aspects of fault location on overhead lines, including both the design and application standpoints.

Before going into the details of specific fault location methods, in the first three chapters of the book the authors introduce some of the fundamentals of fault location concepts, network configurations and the modeling and analysis of faults on power lines. In the next two chapters the focus is on signal processing and the measurement chains for fault location, including the transient performance of capacitive voltage transformers and their dynamic compensation, as well as the basics of current transformers, including the effects of their possible saturation.

Chapter six is one of the key ones in the book and covers a variety of single-end impedance-based fault-location algorithms. The algorithms presented are designed for locating faults on single-circuit lines, double-circuit lines, and series-compensated lines, with both transposed and untransposed lines taken into consideration. Chapter seven is focused on two-end and multi-end fault-location algorithms. Algorithms utilizing two-end synchronized measurements are presented for both phasor-based and time-domain approaches, followed by a detailed analysis of the use of unsynchronized measurements.

Chapter eight deals with the specific issues related to fault location on distribution feeders. The last chapter describes some advanced fault location related methods, more specifically the application of artificial intelligence.

Professional engineers, researchers, and postgraduate and undergraduate students will find Fault Location on Power Lines a valuable resource, which enables them to reproduce complete algorithms of digital fault locators in their basic forms. 

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