Cover Story

Centralized Substation Protection, Automation & Control Systems (CSPACS)

by Alexander Apostolov, USA

We live in an amazing, constantly changing world driven by the continuous evolution of computer and communications technology. In the past we had to get back home to listen to the news, watch a sports game or relax with our favorite music. When traveling, we needed a map to plan our drive in an area that we are not familiar with. To make a phone call when outside we needed to use some coins in a phone booth. Today all these activities can be performed anywhere we want, because the functionality of the radio, TV, gramophone or tape recorder, the phone or the GPS navigator is all integrated in our smart phone with memory and processing power zillions of times better than the systems that took a man to the moon and with high-speed communications that reach every corner of the world. More

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