Book Review Opinions

Resilient Control Architectures and Power Systems

by Craig Rieger, Ronald Boring, Brian Johnson, Timothy McJunkin (Editors)

1st Edition

The last couple decades have been a time of transition of power systems towards a smart grid which can be characterized by the requirements for reliability, security and efficiency. The developments in computer and communications technology made it possible to automate all aspects of protection and control. However, this exposes the electric power grid to cyber security and other threats which raises the requirements for the resilience of the protection and control systems. This requires multidisciplinary teams to resolve the different challenges. The goal of this book is to help university students and industry specialists that are not familiar with the modern automation technology to get sufficient knowledge on a wide range of topics that will help them in their everyday work.

There are almost 300 pages of the book that are divided in nineteen chapters grouped together in seven parts.

Part I Introduction includes two chapters that describe the basic concepts, definitions, and applications of resilient control systems, as well as an overview of the importance of resilient controls for power systems, including their operation and control.

Part II introduces infrastructure fundamentals covered in three chapters. It starts with a look into the classical and emerging architectures of power systems, including smart grids and microgrids, their operations, control, planning, and measures of performance. This is followed by a detailed explanation of control system architectures, including basic generator control loops, automatic generation control, and voltage control. The last chapter of this part covers various communication media used in control systems, such as copper wire, fiber-optic cable, and radio-frequency communications.

The four chapters of Part III are dedicated to disciplinary fundamentals.  The first discusses the process of forming an interdisciplinary team for studying and developing resilient control systems. The next looks at the importance of cybersecurity in control systems, including the main objectives, techniques, threats, secure system design principles, and risk mitigation strategies. The principles of control theory, covering both deterministic linear and nonlinear systems, and the optimal control problem are covered in the third chapter of this part, followed by insights into human system interfaces (HSIs) in control systems, discussing their history, common elements, and the consequences of poor HSIs. It also introduces the concept of user-centered design.   

Part IV has two chapters that introduce metrics fundamentals. It discusses the concept of resilience, including conventional views, the relationship with electric reliability, stress and stressors, resilience domains, and architectural principles for resilience, followed by a description of the metrics for evaluating resilience in control systems, including the definition of resilience, the adaptive capacity of resilience, cybersecurity considerations, and considerations for recovery and restoration epochs.

Four chapters in Part V describe some resilience applications starting with the Grid Game designed to simulate and understand the complexities of power grid operations. The next chapter investigates the cybersecurity threats facing power grid systems, discussing known attacks (like those in Ukraine) and potential attacks. It also covers research efforts in classical power grid systems, smart grid systems, and grid simulators. This is followed by a chapter that explores the challenges involved in controlling resilient systems, looking at design frameworks, control of autonomous systems in adversarial environments, and resiliency for decentralized control systems. The last chapter of this part focuses on the human factors in grid operations and cybersecurity. decision-making in the face of cyber threats, the benefits of gamifying cybersecurity, and interdisciplinary challenges.

Part VI includes three chapters related to additional design considerations. The first chapter discusses the interdependent nature of infrastructure systems, especially in the context of electric grid systems and their engineering. The next chapter explores the concept of multi-agent control systems and power grid resilience looking into intelligent agents, resilient agents, and their benefits to resilience, as well as the design and application of control systems. The last chapter of this part provides additional examples of resilient design capacities such as anticipative, absorptive, adaptive, and restorative capacities. It also discusses considerations for resilient design, operational constraints, and threat spaces. 

The last Part VII contains only one chapter which summarizes the content of the book and emphasizes that resilience is not a design layer but a philosophy. It also looks at the future of resilience and the road to autonomous systems.

Resilient Control Architectures and Power Systems  
by Craig Rieger, Ronald Boring, Brian Johnson, Timothy McJunkin (Editors)
Publisher: IEEE Press Series on Power and Energy Systems
ISBN-10:  1119660416   ISBN-13:   978-1119660415